European Biennial of Contemporary Art (Manifesta)
Manifesta, the European Biennial of Contemporary Art, was initiated, and is supported, by the International Foundation Manifesta (IFM), with offices in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The IFM aims to create opportunities for artists to present their work in a non-competitive environment and to facilitate the emergence of new ideas and forms of artistic expression. Manifesta explores the entire mental and geographical territory of Europe and aims to establish a close dialogue between specific cultural and artistic situations and the broader, international context of contemporary art, theory and politics in a changing society. To this end, Manifesta has opted for a nomadic existence, relocating its operational base to a different city or region of Europe every two years (1996 Rotterdam, 1998 Luxembourg, 2000 Ljubljana, 2002 Frankfurt am Main, 2004 Donostia-San Sebastian). Thus, it embodies the notion of a constantly expanding network, based on the transfer of ‘know how’, as a product of work in progress. The concept of Manifesta is re-examined, each time that the biennial moves on to a new city or region. As an outward expression of this process of renewal, the Board of the IFM and its new partners appoint a fresh tem of curators from different parts of Europe, at the start of each new biennium.